Index Fungorum no. 225
Effectively published 03/03/2015 10:02:48 (ISSN 2049-2375)
Nomenclatural novelties : H.O. Baral
Arachnopezizaceae Hosoya, J.G. Han & Baral, fam.nov.
Apothecia 0.2–4 mm in diam.; hymenium plane, white to yellow-orange, also black; margin with short to long hairs; sessile, with ± conspicuous subiculum of partly warted and thick-walled hyphae. Ectal excipulum of hyaline or rarely brown textura angularis, towards margin textura prismatica, with partly thick-walled, glassy wall. Hairs cylindrical or tapering, also apically swollen, usually multiseptate, thin- or thick-walled, hyaline to yellowish, smooth or warted, crystals absent. Paraphyses cylindrical, hyaline, apically sometimes flexuous, without refractive vacuolar bodies. Asci with amyloid apical ring, with croziers. Ascospores 8 per ascus, 0–7-septate, with or without sheath or appendages. Anamorph unknown or dwayaangam-like (conidia staurosporous). Sabrobic, lignicolous, herbicolous, also on living bryophytes, desiccation-sensitive.
Holotype: Arachnopeziza Fuckel 1870.
The genus Arachnopeziza forms a genetically well-defined group distant from Hyaloscyphaceae (Han et al. 2014). Polydesmia (Hyaloscyphaceae trib. Polydesmieae) and Velutaria Fuckel (≡ Tapesina Lambotte) were previously assigned to Arachnopezizoideae by Korf (1953); the former is genetically unrelated (Verkley 2005), the latter better treated in Pezizellaceae due to the presence of VBs and a chalara-like anamorph. The anamorph Dwayaangam colodena Sokolski & Bérubé is genetically similar to Arachnopeziza (Sokolski et al. 2006) but not to typical Dwayaangam spp. (Orbiliomycetes). Included genera: Arachnopeziza Fuckel, Arachnoscypha Boud., Austropezia Spooner, Eriopezia (Sacc.) Rehm, Parachnopeziza Korf.
Chaetomellaceae Baral, P.R. Johnst. & Rossman, fam.nov.
Apothecia 0.2–1 mm in diam., developing beneath epidermis, early erumpent, not forming a stroma, sessile to substipitate, opening in the prohymenial phase; hymenium plane to convex, whitish, exterior ochraceous to red-brown, hairless or with scattered, long brown setae. Ectal excipulum of a subhyaline to red-brown, ± thick-walled textura angularis, towards margin of textura prismatica-porrecta; without crystals. Setae absent (Pilidium) or present (Chaetomella), dark brown but pale above, thick-walled, septate, smooth, apically subclavate, straight or sometimes strongly curled above. Paraphyses simple, apically branched, without refractive vacuolar bodies, with abundant extracellular, hyaline, resinous drops. Asci cylindric-clavate, with rounded, thick-walled, inamyloid apex, arising from croziers (where known). Ascospores 8 per ascus, hyaline, ellipsoid-fusoid, 0-septate, without sheath, lipid content ± low. Anamorph with 2 synanamorphs: (1) pycnidial, ± sessile, dark brown to black, usually opening by fissures (in Sphaerographium with a rostrate ostiolum); (2) sporodochial (in Synchaetomella synnematal), sessile to long-stalked, externally ochraceous to brown; both conidiomata types smooth or with scattered brown setae similar to teleomorph; conidiogenesis phialidic, acropleurogenous; conidia similar to ascospores, often with pointed ends, straight or falcate, 0–1-septate. Parasitic or saprobic on leaves, also herbaceous stems and fruits of dicots, plurivorous or host-specific, desiccation-sensitive. Worldwide, temperate to subtropical.
Holotype: Chaetomella Fuckel 1870.
This group forms a well-defined clade unrelated to other families of Helotiales (Johnston et al. 2014a). Zoellneria was earlier confused with Hymenotorrendiella (Helotiaceae) due to its brown setae, while Discohainesia was misplaced in Dermateaceae. The two genera possess similar pycnidial and sporodochial synanamorphs. The so far purely anamorphic genera Sphaerographium and Synchaetomella are morphologically and genetically closely related to the above. Encoelia fuckelii Dennis belongs genetically in this family (K. Pärtel pers. comm.). Pilidium is a plurivorous weak parasite, causing e.g., leaf spot, attacking also fruits. Johnston et al. (2014b) suggested to adopt the more widely used anamorph names Chaetomella and Pilidium instead of Zoellneria and Discohainesia. Morphological treatments of the genera are found in Decock et al. (2005), Nannfeldt (1932), Rossman et al. (2004), and Shear & Dodge (1921). Included genera: Chaetomella Fuckel [anam.] (= Zoellneria Velen. [teleom.]), Pilidium Kunze [anam.] (= Discohainesia Nannf. [teleom.]; Hainesia Ellis & Sacc. [anam.]), Sphaerographium Sacc. [anam.], Synchaetomella Decock & Seifert [anam.].
Chlorociboriaceae Baral & P.R. Johnst., fam.nov.
Apothecia 0.5–10 mm in diam., disc- or cup- to ear-shaped, non-gelatinous, opening in the prohymenial phase; hymenium pale to dark blue-green, rarely white; exterior smooth or felted, ± blue-green; (sub-)stipitate, erumpent or superficial, staining the substrate blue-green. Ectal excipulum of hyaline, vertically oriented textura prismatica or textura intricata, thick-walled, covered by dark green exudate; medullary excipulum of textura intricata, without crystals. Blue-green exudate in KOH reversibly turning yellow-green to ochraceous, not dissolved. Hairs (tomentum hyphae) on exterior present or absent, short, septate, straight to strongly coiling, hyaline or greenish, smooth or warted. Paraphyses filiform, without refractive vacuolar bodies. Asci with apical thickening with eu- or hemiamyloid ring (Calycina-type), with croziers. Ascospores 8 per ascus, ellipsoid-oblong to fusoid, cylindrical, or fliform, straight to slightly curved, hyaline, 0 (–3)-septate, without sheath, lipid content low to medium. Anamorph stromatic, greenish-black, multilocular; phialides with long collarettes; conidia rod-shaped. Lignicolous, also herbicolous or foliicolous, mainly desiccation-sensitive (but green stain developed in xeric wood). Worldwide, especially diverse in the Southern Hemisphere, temperate to subtropical.
Holotype: Chlorociboria Seaver ex C.S. Ramamurthi, Korf & L.R. Batra 1958.
Genetically, Chlorociboria occupies a rather isolated position within the Helotiales, showing a relationship with Cyttariales and Erysiphales (Schoch et al. 2009 suppl. fig. 6D, Wang et al. 2006a, b). Encoelia glauca Dennis belongs genetically in this family (K. Pärtel pers. comm.). Two genera, Aeruginoscyphus Dougoud and Otwaya G. Beaton, which are doubtfully distinct from each other, resemble Chlorociboria in staining the wood blue-green, but differ in a thin-walled textura prismatica oriented at a low angle, covered by very long, thick-walled, septate hairs. Unpublished analyses of DNA sequence data of Aeruginoscyphus gained by G.J.M. Verkley (S. Helleman pers. comm.) suggest an unresolved position within the Helotiales. Representative treatments of Chlorociboria are found in Bellemère (1968), Johnston & Park (2005), and Tudor et al. (2014). Included genera: Chlorociboria Seaver ex Ramamurthi, Korf & L.R. Batra (= Dothiorina Höhn. [anam.]).
Godroniaceae Baral, fam.nov.
Apothecia 0.3–3.5 mm in diam., urceolate to saucer-shaped; hymenium pale to dark grey or cream, opening in the mesohymenial phase; margin strongly protruding, partly hairy, exterior often furfuraceous-tomentose or ribbed, rusty- to greenish- or blackish-brown; sessile or with short stalk, partly arising from a common base (stromatic), erumpent. Ectal excipulum at least near margin of hyaline to yellow-ochre textura oblita or dark brown textura prismatica, at base and flanks also textura angularis; medullary excipulum of reddish- to dark olive-brown textura prismatica-porrecta, subhymenium hyaline; without crystals, exudate in KOH often releasing a yellow-brown, rarely bluish-green pigment. Paraphyses filiform, apically often slightly inflated, without refractive vacuolar bodies, partly granular-encrusted by ochraceous, pinkish, or bluish exudate. Asci with hemispherical to conical apex with amyloid apical ring (Calycina-type) or inamyloid, with croziers. Ascospores 8 per ascus, ellipsoid to fusiform or clavate to vermiform or filiform, 0–7-septate, without sheath, lipid content low to rather high. Anamorph coelomycetous, stromatic, yellowish to blackish-brown, roundish to conical or discoid, uni- or multilocular; conidiogenesis phialidic; conidia ellipsoid to fusoid or vermiform, straight ot falcate or helicoid, 0–7-septate. Parasitic on bark of woody gymnosperm and angiosperm plants, rarely monocots, desiccation-tolerant. Northern Hemisphere, temperate to subarctic-alpine.
Holotype: Godronia Moug. & LÚv. 1846.
In phylogenetic analyses, the conifericolous genera Ascocalyx and Gremmeniella, which are important pathogens causing branch cankers and dieback of young shoots, are closely related to the angiosperm-inhabiting, ± parasitic genus Godronia (Suija et al. 2014). The also parasitic conifericolous genus Atropellis is without GenBank data but matches Ascocalyx in the Fuckelia anamorph. The four genera differ in the ectal excipulum (textura oblita in Godronia and ?Atropellis) and ascus apex (amyloid in Godronia). Despite the ionomidotic reaction in Godronia and Atropellis, a relationship to Cordieritidaceae is genetically not supported, while a genetically suggested placement near Mitrula Fr. (Mitrulaceae) has little morphological support. Morphological treatments on these genera are found in Groves (1965), Reid & Funk (1966), and Schläpfer-Bernhard (1968). Included genera: Ascocalyx Naumov (= Bothrodiscus Shear [anam.]), Atropellis Zeller & Goodd., Godronia Moug. & Lév. (= Scleroderris (Fr.) Bonord., Crumenula De Not.; Fuckelia Bonord., Topospora Fr. etc. [anam.]), Gremmeniella M. Morelet (= Lagerbergia J. Reid; Brunchorstia Erikss. [anam.]).
Helicogoniaceae Baral, fam.nov.
Ascomata absent or present, circular, 0.04–0.6 mm in diam., semiglobose to pulvinate, light- or dark-coloured, often ± gelatinous, margin smooth, opening in the prohymenial phase; (sub-)sessile, immersed, erumpent or superficial. Ectal excipulum of textura prismatica-angularis to textura porrecta, cells oriented at varying angles, often immersed in ± abundant, hyaline to brownish gel. Paraphyses simple, apex inflated or not, straight or curved. Asci cylindric-clavate, always inamyloid, opening by an apical slit, with or without croziers. Ascospores 8 per ascus, subglobose, ellipsoid, clavate, cylindrical or filiform, 0–1 (–3)-septate, lipid content low to high; frequently budding directly conidia (often as ascoconidia enclosed in 8 balls). Anamorph hyphomycetous, also pycnidial; conidiogenesis monoblastic, annelidic, or phialidic without collarette; conidia small, ellipsoid to cylindrical, sometimes with appendages (Eleutheromyces). Parasitic in hymenia of mainly discomycetes, basidiomycetes, thalli of lichens, ?also saprobic. Widespread, mainly temperate, desiccation-tolerant or not.
Holotype: Helicogonium W.L. White 1942.
The type genus Helicogonium forms only ascogenous hyphae, asci, and a phialidic hyphomycetous anamorph, and was previously placed in Saccharomycotina (Cain 1948, White 1942). The asci are formed in ascomata of Leotio- and Orbiliomycetes between their paraphyses, or in hymenia of basidiomycetes, and often produce ascoconidia. The parasitic mode of life is easily overlooked unless both types of meiosporangia are present (Baral 1999). Fruitbody-forming teleomorphs here tentatively included in the family appear to represent ancestors of Helicogonium because of their similar inamyloid asci, budding ascospores (Gelatinopsis polyconidiata Baral & G. Marson with balls of ascoconidia), and fungicolous growth (G. hysteropatellae Baral & G. Marson with reduced apothecia immersed in hymenium of host, Baral & Marson 2001). DNA sequences are available only for Gelatinipulvinella (Hosoya & Otani 1995), Geltingia and Eleutheromyces (Suija et al. 2014), which cluster in a clade with Phacidiaceae and Tympanidaceae. Included genera: Eleutheromycella Höhn. [anam.], Eleutheromyces Fuckel [anam.], Gelatinipulvinella Hosoya & Y. Otani (= Aureohyphozyma Hosoya & Y. Otani [anam.]), Calloriopsis Syd. & P. Syd, Gelatinopsis Rambold & Triebel, Geltingia Alstrup & D. Hawksw., Helicogonium W.L. White (= Myriogonium Cain) (without ascomata).
Marthamycetaceae Baral, Lantz, Hustad & Minter, fam.nov.
Ascomata apothecial, 0.3–8 mm in diam., circular to elongate, partly confluent, lenticular in cross section when young, developing within substrate, erumpent, cleistohymenial (opening in the mesohymenial phase), covering layer splitting into ± irregular lobes or teeth with adhering host tissue; hymenium white, cream or blue-green-grey, rarely yellow or orange-rose, ± pruinose, closing on drying or not, exterior pale to dark, lobes sometimes white-fimbriate. Ectal excipulum ± reduced, of isodiametrical, hyaline to dark brown cells, crystals sometimes present in lobes, inner face of lobes often entirely covered by more hyaline periphysiods not embedded in gel. Paraphyses densely septate, frequently anastomosing, apically unbranched or often branched and flexuous, covered by granular exudate. Asci cylindric-clavate, apex rounded or conical, thick- or thin-walled, inamyloid, rarely with amyloid ring, arising from croziers. Ascospores 8 per ascus, rarely polysporous, ellipsoid to cylindrical or filiform, non- or transversely 1–7 (–13)-septate, rarely muriform, straight or curved, hyaline, without sheath, lipid content low to high. Anamorph unknown. Saprobic on leaves or woody plant substrate, desiccation-tolerant. Worldwide, tropical to arctic-alpine.
Holotype: Marthamyces Minter 2003.
This group, which was formerly named propoloid fungi, is here considered to deserve the rank of a family. It does not cluster with the Rhytismataceae, where it was traditionally placed, nor with the Phacidiaceae, instead it is found unresolved at the base of the Helotiales. Due to a very different ascoma structure it should not be included in the Helotiales. In the two available phylogenetic analyses (Hustad & Miller 2011, Lantz et al. 2011), the family falls into two clades according to ascospore shape: (1) Propolis and Mellitiosporium (spores cylindric-ellipsoid), and (2) Cyclaneusma, Marthamyces and Naemacyclus (spores filiform). The unsequenced Mellitiosporiella, Propolina and Phragmiticola might therefore belong to the former clade. Phragmiticola deviates from all others by amyloid apical rings similar to Phacidiaceae, Propolina by multispored asci, and Mellitiosporium by muriform spores. A survey on Marthamyces (as Propolis) is found in Sherwood (1977), and on Propolis in Minter (2003). Included genera: Cyclaneusma DiCosmo, Peredo & Minter, Marthamyces Minter, Mellitiosporiella Höhn. (?= Propolidium Sacc.), Mellitiosporium Corda, Naemacyclus Fuckel (= Lasiostictis (Sacc. & Berl.) Sacc.), Phragmiticola Sherwood, Propolina Sacc., Propolis (Fr.) Corda (= Propolomyces Sherwood).
Tympanidaceae Baral & Quijada, fam.nov.
Ascomata apothecial, ± circular, 0.15–3 mm in diam. (rarely 3–11 mm, Holwaya), sometimes in dense aggregations, often slightly gelatinous, opening in the mesohymenial phase; sessile or stalked, erumpent or superficial; pale cream to red-brown, blue-green, or mostly dark olivaceous to black; margin and exterior smooth or powdery, rarely with marginal lobes, not closing on drying. Ectal excipulum of textura globosa to textura prismatica or textura intricata under a high angle, embedded in ± abundant, pigmented exudate, pigment usually KOH-inert, rarely ionomidotic, strongly gelatinized or not; sometimes with crystals. Paraphyses cylindrical to capitate, straight, unbranched, ± densely septate; embedded in hyaline or brownish mucilage or granular, amorphous exudate, without refractive vacuolar bodies. Asci cylindric-clavate, inamyloid, rarely with amyloid apical ring incl. entire ascus wall, apically and/or laterally thick-walled, arising from croziers. Ascospores (4–)8 per ascus, globose, ellipsoid, or vermiform, hyaline, 0–15(–21)-septate, also with longisepta, lipid content low or high, multiguttulate; often budding numerous ascoconidia inside living asci enclosed in 8 balls. Anamorph pycnidial (Chondropodium, Collophora, Periperidium, Sirodothis), uni- or multilocular, also synnematal (Dendrostilbella, Crinula) or hyphomycetous (Myriodiscus). Conidiophores hyaline, phialidic, often acropleurogenous, also reduced; conidia minute, aseptate, ellipsoid, cylindric or allantoid, but in Durandiella large, falcate, (1–)3-septate. Corticolous, lignicolous, or resinicolous, especially on conifers, also angiosperms and bamboo (Myriodiscus), often associated with necroses, also saprobic, desiccation-tolerant. Worldwide, mainly temperate.
Holotype: Tympanis Tode 1790.
Previously assigned to Bulgariaceae, Dermateaceae or Helotiaceae, the included genera are here placed together for their morphological and genetic resemblance. Phylogenetic analyses by Quijada & Baral (in prep.) suggest that the fam. Tympanidaceae forms a sister group to Phacidiaceae, from which it is morphologically quite different. The included genera share similar anamorphs (except for Durandiella) and inamyloid asci (except for Claussenomyces pseudotsugae (J.W. Groves) Ouell. & Piroz.). Collophora is genetically connected to Tympanidaceae, and resembles anamorphs of, e.g., Pragmopora. Chondropodium is similar to Micropera (Dermateaceae), but lacks a ionomidotic reaction. Micraspis (Phacidiaceae) is tentatively placed here mainly because of its budding ascospores and septate macroconidia (see DiCosmo et al. 1984). The production of ascoconidia is typical of Tympanis and Claussenomyces p.p. (probably also of Myriodiscus = Gelatinomyces, which is described as multispored). The genus Claussenomyces is heterogeneous and requires further investigation. Descriptions of the genera are found in Boedijn (1935), Damm et al. (2010), Groves (1954, 1967), Korf & Abawi (1971), Ouellette & Pirozynski (1974), and Sanoamuang et al. (2013). Included genera: Claussenomyces Kirschst. (= Dendrostilbella Höhn. [anam.]), Collophora Damm & Crous [anam.], Durandiella Seaver (= Chondropodium Höhn., Gelatinosporium Peck [anam.]), ?Micraspis Darker (= Periperidium Darker [anam.]), Myriodiscus Boedijn (= Ascotremellopsis Teng & S.H. Ou, = Gelatinomyces Sanoamuang, Jitjak, Rodtong & al.), Grovesiella M. Morelet, Holwaya Sacc. (= Crinula Sacc. [anam.]), Pragmopora A. Massal., Tympanis Fr. (= Sirodothis Clem. [anam.]).